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Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 9/17

September 2017—Hemoccult testing before therapeutic anticoagulation in venous thromboembolism: Gastrointestinal bleeding is a major adverse event associated with therapeutic anticoagulation. Surveys of physicians have shown that concern for this event is one of the most common reasons to withhold anticoagulation in patients who have atrial fibrillation, acute coronary syndromes, or venous thromboembolism (VTE).

Anatomic Pathology Abstracts, 9/17

Editors: Michael Cibull, MD, professor emeritus, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington; Rouzan Karabakhtsian, MD, PhD, associate professor of …

Molecular Pathology Abstracts, 9/17

September 2017—Ability of cell-free circulating tumor DNA to reflect genomic changes in cancer deposits: Analysis of cell-free circulating tumor DNA is an emerging precision medicine technology that may be used to assess molecular alterations in cancer-derived DNA present in the blood, as well as to monitor cancer genomic changes over time and assess genomic changes and resistance following cancer therapy.

Molecular Pathology Abstracts, 8/17

August 2017—Mismatch repair-deficient tumors and immune checkpoint inhibitors: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have yielded highly effective therapeutic responses in a subset of tumors by eliciting an endogenous adaptive immune response. The determinants that define this subset of tumors are still unclear, but several markers, including PD-L1 expression and mutational burden, have been evaluated in various tumor types.

Anatomic Pathology Abstracts, 8/17

August 2017—Analysis of microglandular adenosis and acinic cell carcinoma of the breast: Acinic cell carcinoma is an indolent form of invasive breast cancer, whereas microglandular adenosis has been shown to be a neoplastic proliferation. Both entities display a triple-negative phenotype and may give rise to, as well as display, somatic genomic alterations typical of high-grade triple-negative breast cancers. The authors compared previously published data on eight carcinoma-associated microglandular adenoses and eight acinic cell carcinomas subjected to massively parallel sequencing targeting all exons of 236 genes recurrently mutated in breast cancer or DNA repair related, or both.

Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 8/17

August 2017—Etiology and clinical presentation of birth defects: a population-based study: Birth defects are inborn errors of development and include any structural or functional anomaly that impacts physical, intellectual, or social well-being. They are a considerable and growing clinical and public health challenge. Major birth defects are common and costly. Collectively, they are estimated to occur in one in 33 births, which translates into approximately 7.9 million babies affected worldwide. In the United States alone, the cost of care during a single year (2004) was estimated to be $2.6 billion.

Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 7/17

July 2017—Effects of early tranexamic acid administration on women with postpartum hemorrhage: The leading cause of maternal death is postpartum hemorrhage, which is defined as blood loss of more than 500 mL within 24 hours of giving birth. The majority of such deaths occur in low-income and middle-income countries.

Anatomic Pathology Abstracts, 7/17

July 2017—Potential quality indicators for lymph node staging of colon cancer: Evaluation of 12 or more lymph nodes is used as a quality indicator for adequacy of pathologic examination of colon cancer resections. The authors conducted a study to evaluate the utility of a focused lymph node search in the immediate vicinity of the tumor and a “second-look” protocol for improving lymph node staging in colon cancer.

Molecular Pathology Abstracts, 7/17

July 2017—Immune checkpoint inhibition therapy, such as blockage of PD-1/PD-L1 interaction, has proven effective in many types of cancers. The mechanism underlying this therapy is postulated to involve “disinhibition” of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes that respond to neoantigens expressed by tumor cells. In theory, the larger the number of neoantigens expressed, the greater the immune response resulting from disinhibition.

Anatomic Pathology Abstracts, 6/17

June 2017—Fallopian tube involvement in uterine serous carcinomas: The authors investigated the frequency and histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of tubal involvement in uterine serous carcinoma to clarify the relationship between serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) and uterine serous carcinoma. They prospectively collected and reviewed, for the presence of tubal involvement, cases of the latter with complete tubal examination.