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Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 2/18

February 2018—Restrictive or liberal approach to red blood cell transfusion for cardiac surgery

Among the largest group of recipients of red blood cell transfusions are patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Whether a restrictive approach to intraoperative and postoperative transfusion in cardiac surgery is superior to a more liberal approach with regard to patient outcomes is unclear.

Anatomic Pathology Abstracts, 2/18

February 2018—ARTEMIS trial: quantifying pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy: The Affordability and Real-World Antiplatelet Treatment Effectiveness after Myocardial Infarction Study, also known as the ARTemis trial, tested standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab in the treatment of HER2-negative early breast cancer.

Molecular Pathology Abstracts, 2/18

February 2018—Gene expression and risk of leukemic transformation in myelodysplasia: The myelodysplastic syndromes represent a group of clonal hematopoietic disorders with varying prognoses, with survival ranging from a few months to more than 10 years. Multiple laboratory measurements have been used in attempts to provide reliable prognostic assessments, including bone marrow blast counts, severity of peripheral cytopenia, cytogenetic findings, and, most recently, gene-mutation profiling.

Anatomic Pathology Abstracts, 12/17

December 2017—Gene mutations in HPV-negative penile squamous cell carcinoma: The majority of penile squamous cell carcinomas are caused by transforming human papillomavirus infection. The etiology of HPV-negative cancers is unclear, but TP53 mutations have been implicated. Archival tissue from 108 invasive squamous cell carcinomas from a single pathology institution in a low-incidence area were analyzed for HPV-DNA and p16INK4A overexpression and for TP53 mutations by Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing.

Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 12/17

December 2017—Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy assessment and management of toxicities: In August, the FDA approved the gene therapy Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel) for pediatric and young adult patients with a form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is a breakthrough in the treatment of leukemia and lymphoma, but it is associated with unique acute toxicities, such as cytokine-release syndrome and CAR-T-cell-related encephalopathy syndrome.

Molecular Pathology Abstracts, 12/17

December 2017—Refining subgroups of pediatric gliomas using molecular markers: Pediatric high-grade and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas are a rare and heterogeneous group of tumors that show diverse histology, location, and prognosis. Although little was known regarding the development of these tumors, recent genomic studies have begun to elucidate their biological underpinnings. The authors conducted a study to further understanding of such gliomas by breaking them into subgroups.

Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 11/17

November 2017—Performance of virological testing for early infant diagnosis: a systematic review: The World Health Organization recommends that HIV-exposed infants receive virological testing for HIV infection between four and six weeks of age and treatment with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy as soon as the diagnosis is made. Despite efforts to expand mother-to-child transmission prevention programs, only an estimated 50 percent of HIV-exposed infants are tested within the first two months of life.

Anatomic Pathology Abstracts, 11/17

November 2017—MCM2: an alternative to Ki-67 for measuring breast cancer cell proliferatio: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease comprised of a diversity of tumor subtypes that manifest themselves in a wide variety of clinical, pathological, and molecular features.

Molecular Pathology Abstracts, 11/17

November 2017—Molecular analysis of colorectal tumors in Lynch syndrome: Lynch syndrome, most often caused by a germline mutation in MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, or PMS2, contributes to a number of malignancies, including colorectal and endometrial cancer.

Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 10/17

October 2017—Association between age at natural menopause and risk of type 2 diabetes: Menopause in women marks the loss of ovarian follicle development and the timing of the final menstrual period. The timing of menopause differs significantly among women and is seen as a marker of aging and cardiovascular health. Studies have shown a link between early onset of menopause and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and overall mortality, whereas menopause at age 50 to 54 years is linked to a decrease in CVD risk and mortality.

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