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Articles tagged with: Clinical Pathology Abstracts –

Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 4/18

April 2018—Potential contributors to error in oxygen saturation calculation using a POC assay: Oxygen saturation is important for measuring respiratory status and calculating cardiac output for patients. The gold standard for oxygen saturation (sO2) is CO-oximetry, but other methods, which involve calculations rather than measurement of sO2, are widely used because they enable point-of-care (POC) testing. The calculations use mathematical models based on average physiologic parameters to relate blood parameters, such as pH, pCO2, and pO2, to sO2.

Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 3/18

March 2018—Web platform vs. genetic counselor for releasing carrier results from exome sequencing: Genomics can be used to generate a large amount of data that may have important implications for clinical care and selection of therapeutics. However, a bottleneck exists in clinical genomics due to the large volume of results and the lack of availability of knowledgeable professionals to return them to patients in person.

Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 2/18

February 2018—Restrictive or liberal approach to red blood cell transfusion for cardiac surgery: Among the largest group of recipients of red blood cell transfusions are patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Whether a restrictive approach to intraoperative and postoperative transfusion in cardiac surgery is superior to a more liberal approach with regard to patient outcomes is unclear.

Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 1/18

January 2018—Drone transport of chemistry and hematology samples over long distances: Interest in using unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, to transport laboratory specimens is based on the need to move specimens from satellite facilities to a central hub for testing. Earlier studies of biological specimens transported by drones were performed in ambient or cold temperatures for a maximum flight length of 40 minutes.

Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 12/17

December 2017—Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy assessment and management of toxicities: In August, the FDA approved the gene therapy Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel) for pediatric and young adult patients with a form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is a breakthrough in the treatment of leukemia and lymphoma, but it is associated with unique acute toxicities, such as cytokine-release syndrome and CAR-T-cell-related encephalopathy syndrome.

Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 11/17

November 2017—Performance of virological testing for early infant diagnosis: a systematic review: The World Health Organization recommends that HIV-exposed infants receive virological testing for HIV infection between four and six weeks of age and treatment with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy as soon as the diagnosis is made. Despite efforts to expand mother-to-child transmission prevention programs, only an estimated 50 percent of HIV-exposed infants are tested within the first two months of life.

Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 10/17

October 2017—Association between age at natural menopause and risk of type 2 diabetes: Menopause in women marks the loss of ovarian follicle development and the timing of the final menstrual period. The timing of menopause differs significantly among women and is seen as a marker of aging and cardiovascular health. Studies have shown a link between early onset of menopause and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and overall mortality, whereas menopause at age 50 to 54 years is linked to a decrease in CVD risk and mortality.

Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 9/17

September 2017—Hemoccult testing before therapeutic anticoagulation in venous thromboembolism: Gastrointestinal bleeding is a major adverse event associated with therapeutic anticoagulation. Surveys of physicians have shown that concern for this event is one of the most common reasons to withhold anticoagulation in patients who have atrial fibrillation, acute coronary syndromes, or venous thromboembolism (VTE).

Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 8/17

August 2017—Etiology and clinical presentation of birth defects: a population-based study: Birth defects are inborn errors of development and include any structural or functional anomaly that impacts physical, intellectual, or social well-being. They are a considerable and growing clinical and public health challenge. Major birth defects are common and costly. Collectively, they are estimated to occur in one in 33 births, which translates into approximately 7.9 million babies affected worldwide. In the United States alone, the cost of care during a single year (2004) was estimated to be $2.6 billion.

Clinical Pathology Abstracts, 7/17

July 2017—Effects of early tranexamic acid administration on women with postpartum hemorrhage: The leading cause of maternal death is postpartum hemorrhage, which is defined as blood loss of more than 500 mL within 24 hours of giving birth. The majority of such deaths occur in low-income and middle-income countries.